# Elements of Group 13: The Boro Family (Properties, Notes) (2023)

• Written bySahana Soma Kodarkar
• Last change 01/24/2023

We all know the periodic table. Isn't it difficult to remember all the properties of elements? There are $$18$$ groups and $$7$$ periods in the periodic table to study the properties of each element. You've probably heard of boron. Boron is used in the manufacture of popular fiberglass. In this article we will learn more about theGroup 13 elements: The boron family, from the periodic table.

## Introduction to Group 13 elements

The group $$13$$ represents the boron family and the elements that $${\rm{n}}{{\rm{s}}^{\rm{2}}}{\rm{n}} { { \rm{p}}^{\rm{1}}}$$ configuration. Contains boron $$\left( {\rm{B}} \right)$$ aluminum $$\left( {{\rm{Al}}} \right)$$, gallium $$\left( {{\ rm {Ga}}} \right)$$, indium $$\left( {{\rm{In}}} \right)$$ thallium $$\left( {{\rm{Tl}}} \right) \ ) and the newly discovered element Ununtrium \(\left( {{\rm{uut}}} \right)$$, which is radioactive. With the exception of boron, which is not a metal, all elements in this group have metallic properties. The nonmetallic character of B may be due to its small size, high ionization enthalpy, and relatively high electronegativity.

### boron deposits

Boron is a relatively rare element known for its occurrence in borax deposits. Aluminum is the third most common element $$\left( {8.3\% } \right)$$ in the earth's crust after oxygen $$\left( {46.0\% } \right)$$ and silicon$$\left( { 27.7\ % } \right).$$ The remaining three elements (Ga, In, and TI) are found in minor amounts as sulfides in lead and zinc sulfide ores.

(Video) Periodic Table Part 4: Boron Group (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Nh)

The important minerals of boron are the following:

1. Borax: $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}_2}\left[ {\;{{\rm{B}}_4}{{\rm{O}}_5}{{( {\rm{OH}})}_4}} \right] \cdot 8{{\rm{H}}_2}{\rm{O}}$$
2. Kernita: $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}_2}\left[ {\;{{\rm{B}}_4}{{\rm{O}}_5}{{( {\rm{OH}})}_4}} \right]$$
3. Colemanita: $${\rm{Ca}}\left[ {{{\rm{B}}_3}{{\rm{O}}_4}{{({\rm{OH}})}_3}} \derecha].{{\rm{H}}_2}{\rm{O}}$$
4. Orthoborsäure: $${{\rm{H}}_3}{\rm{B}}{{\rm{O}}_3}$$

The main minerals of aluminum are the following:

1. Bauxita: $${\rm{A}}{{\rm{l}}_2}{{\rm{O}}_3} \cdot {\rm{x}}{{\rm{H}}_2} {\rm{O}}$$
2. Caolinita: $${\rm{A}}{{\rm{l}}_2}{({\rm{OH}})_4} \cdot {\rm{S}}{{\rm{i}} _2}{{\rm{O}}_5}$$
3. Kriolita: $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}_3}{\rm{Al}}{{\rm{F}}_6}$$

### Electronic configuration of Group 13 elements

The general electronic configuration of the valence shell of the elements of group $$13$$ is $${\rm{n}}{{\rm{s}}^{\rm{2}}}{\rm{ n }}{ { \rm{p}}^{\rm{1}}}{\rm{,}}$$ where $$\mathrm{n}=2-7$$ While boron and aluminum have noble gas nuclei, gallium and indium have Noble gas plus $$10$$ d-electrons and thallium has noble gas plus $$14\,{\rm{f}}$$-plus $$10 \,{\rm{d}) }$$- nuclei of electrons .

As a result, the electronic configurations of the elements in group $$13$$ are more complex than those in groups $$1$$ and $$2.$$. Therefore, the chemistry of all elements in this group is affected by this difference. in electronic configurations. The table shows the overall electronic configuration of these elements.

### Physical Properties of the Boron Family (Group 13 Elements)

The physical characteristics of the born family are explained below.

The atomic and ionic radii of the group $$13$$ elements are smaller than those of the group $$2$$. Both atomic and ionic radii are expected to increase as one moves down the group, as a new electron shell is added with each successive element. However, there are some deviations if we go from $${\rm{Al}}$$ to $${\rm{GA}}$$. For example, the atomic radius of $${\rm{Ga(135\,pm)}}$$ is slightly smaller than that of $${\rm{Al(143\,pm)}}$$

#### 4.Electropositive character-metallic character

The group $$13$$ elements are less electropositive or metallic than the alkali metals (group $$1)$$ and the alkaline earth metals (group $$2).$$ The electropositive character of the elements increases from boron to aluminum and increases then from aluminum to thallium as you go down the group.

#### 5.density

Group $$13$$ elements have higher densities than group $$2$$ elements due to smaller atomic and ionic radii. The densities increase as you go down the group. This is due to an increase in the atomic mass of the elements, which offsets the effect of increasing atomic size. However, the boron and aluminum densities are much lower than those of the other members.

#### 6.melting and boiling points

The melting points of the $$13$$ elements do not follow a regular pattern, as do those of the $$1$$ and $$2$$ elements. This is most likely due to the peculiar crystal structures of B and Ga. As you go down the group from B to Ga, the melting points actually fall sharply and then rise from Ga to Tl. Therefore, Ga has the lowest melting point $$(303 \mathrm{~ K})$$ of the elements of group $$13$$ and can exist as a liquid at room temperature in summer.

### Chemical Properties of the Boron Family (Group 13 Elements)

1.oxidation state: The elements of the group $$13$$ have two electrons in the s orbital and one electron in the p orbital. As a result, these elements should have a uniform oxidation state of $$+3.$$. This is true for boron and aluminum, which have an oxidation state of $$+3,$$, but gallium, indium, and thallium have oxidation. States of $$+1$$ and $$+3$$ due to the inert pair effect.

2.reduce nature:The first element, boron, is not a reducing agent as it does not tend to donate valence electrons. A reducing agent is aluminum. As the hydration energy released compensates for the ionization energy required to lose electrons in an aqueous solution. In general, the reducing character reduces the group in the order $$\mathrm{Al}>\mathrm{Ga}>\mathrm{In}>\mathrm{Tl}$$

3.hydride formation: Group $$13$$ elements (boron family) do not combine directly with hydrogen to form hydrides. However, some of the hydrides of these elements have been produced indirectly.

4.halide formation: The elements of group $$13$$ react with halogens at high temperatures to form trihalides of the general formula $$\mathrm{MX}_{3}$$ thallium(III) iodide $$\left( {{ \ rm{ However, Tl}}{{\rm{l}}_{\rm{3}}}} \right)$$ is unknown.

$$2{\rm{M(s) + 3}}{{\rm{X}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{(g)}}\mahop \a \límites^{{ \rm{ Calor }}} 2{\rm{M}}{{\rm{X}}_3}({\rm{X}} = {\rm{F}},{\rm{Cl}}, {\rm{Br}},{\rm{I}})$$

(Video) Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family

5.Oxide formation (reactivity to air): All metals of group $$13$$ react with dioxygen at high temperatures to form trioxides of the formula $${{\rm{M}}_2}{{\rm{O}}_3}$$

6.hydroxide formation: Hydroxide, $${\rm{M}}{({\rm{OH}})_3}$$ is formed by dissolving metal oxides, $${{\rm{M}}}_2}{{\ rm { O }}_3}$$, in water.

$$\mahop {{{\rm{M}}_2}{{\rm{O}}_3}}\limits_{{\rm{Metal}}\,\,{\rm{óxido}}} + 3 {{\rm{H}}_2}{\rm{O}} \to \mahop {2{\rm{M}}{{({\rm{OH}})}_3}}\limits_{{\ rm{Metall}}\,\,{\rm{hidróxido}}}$$

Hydroxides behave similarly to oxides, i.e. $${\rm{B}}{({\rm{OH}})_3}$$ or boric acid is a typical acid, $${ \rm { Al}}{({ \rm{OH}})_3}$$ and $${\rm{Ga}}{({\rm{OH}})_3}$$ are both amphoteric, while \ (\ln { ({\rm{ OH}})_3}\) and $${\rm{Tl}}}{({\rm{OH}})_3}$$ are basic in nature.

7.Reactivity to acids and alkalis:

A.The Effect of Acids: Boron does not react with non-oxidizing acids such as hydrochloric acid. However, high temperatures are caused by strong oxidizing acids, e.g. B. a hot concentrated mixture. $${{\rm{H}}_2}{\rm{S}}{{\rm{O}}_4}$$ and $${\rm{HN}}{{\rm{O}}_3 }(2:1)$$ formation of boric acid $$\left( {{{\rm{H}}_3}{\rm{B}}{{\rm{O}}_3}} \right)$$

All other elements react with oxidizing and non-oxidizing acids. For example, aluminum reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to release hydrogen gas.

(Video) Group-13 Elements/ BORON GROUP OF FAMILY

$${\rm{2Al(s) + 6HCl(ac)}} \to {\rm{2A}}{{\rm{l}}^{{\rm{3 + }}}}}{\rm{ (ac) + 6C}}{{\rm{l}}^{\rm{ – }}}{\rm{(ac) + 3}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2} }}{\rm{(g)}}$$

B.The action of alkalis: Boron is resistant to the action of alkalis $${\rm{(NaOH \;o\;KOH)}}$$ up to $${\rm{773\,K}}}$$, but above this temperature it is reacts, forming borates and releasing dihydrogen gas.

### Summary

The group $$13$$ represents the boron family, and the elements have a $${\rm{n}}{{\rm{s}}^{\rm{2}}}{\rm{n }} { {\rm{p}}^{\rm{1}}}$$ configuration. Contains boron $$\left( {\rm{B}} \right)$$ aluminum $$\left( {{\rm{Al}}} \right)$$ gallium $$\left( {{\rm { Ga}}} \right)$$, indium $$\left( {{\rm{In}}} \right)$$ thallium $$\left( {{\rm{Tl}}} \right)\ ) and the newly discovered element Ununtrium \(\left( {{\rm{uut}}} \right)$$, which is radioactive. The atomic and ionic radii of the group $$13$$ elements are smaller than those of the group $$2$$. The elements of the boron family (group $$13)$$ are more electronegative than the group I and group II elements.

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